Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

Influence du mode de réponse sur le seuil de reconnaissance de la parole chez l'enfant français québécois d' âge scholaire

 
Author(s) Caroline Lebel, MOA
Michel Picard, B. Ps, PhD
Volume 21
Number 1
Year 1997
Page(s) 17-27
Language French
Category
Keywords seuil
vocal
restauration
phonémique
accès
Abstract Dans un approfondissement de la connaissance du développement des habiletés d'écoute chez l'enfant français québécois, la présente étude jette un regard sur les modes de réponse devant surseoir à la mesure du seuil vocal. En effet, il ne semble pas encore exister de protocole d'examens audiométriques de perception de la parole dont les modes opératoires auraient été éprovés auprès des jeunes enfants. Trois groupes d'enfants de première (six à sept ans), troisième (huit à neuf ans) a cinquième année du primaire (10-11 ans) avec audition dans les limites de la normale ont ainsi été soumis à des mesures de seuil de reconnaissance de la parole (SRP) avec et sans support imagé. L'instrument utilisé pour la mesure du SRP est le Test de seuil vocal en images pour enfants (TSVI) (Lebel, 1992). Ce test est composé de cinq listes de bisyllabes connus d'enfants de cinq ans et plus et il prévoit une réponse à choix multiples par désignation d'images. Les résultats montrent un SRP significativement plus grand que le degré de perte tonale exprimé par la moyenne aux sons purs (MSP) chez tous les enfants lorsque la performance à la répétition de mot est comparée à la désignation d'images. Les enfants qui sont soumis pour une première fois à des évaluations audiométriques vocales semblent profiter de l'ajout d'un élément visuel leur permettant un accès lexical plus aisé par restriction de d'étendue lexicale en présence d'un message auditif affaibli. Cette observation remet en question la pertinence d'une pratique audiologique qui semble privilégier la répétition comme mode de réponse à partir de l'âge de sept ou huit ans. Cette observation pourrait modifier de manière significative la pratique de l'audiologie en milieu pédiatrique.



The present study investigated the relationship between the development of listening skills and speech reception threshold (SRT) in school-age speakers of Quebec french. Specifically, the performance of six - to 11-year-old children was examined while controlling for response mode: in one test modality, children were asked to repeat familiar bisyllables; in the second condition, they were asked to identify pictures in a close- set response paradigm. Seventy-two normally hearing children grouped according to academic level were tested. There were 24 first graders (six to seven year olds), 24 third graders (eight to nine year old) and 24 fifth graders (10 to 11 years old). The material used was the Test de seuil vocal en images pour enfants (TSVI) (Lebel, 1992). This test consists of five lists of spondaic words known to 5-year-old children, and it incorporates pictorial representations to offer the opportunity for a close-set response format. For all children, results showed elevated speech reception thresholds (SRT) when repetition was compared to picture identification. Moreover, the "SRT-pure-tone agreement" increased significantly after the age of seven. These results suggest that older children were more at ease listening to speech at barely audible levels. More specifically, articulation functions showed that third and fifth graders used phonological and lexical contexts more efficiently when offered a close-set response format, as opposed to open-set format. Restrictions imposed on vocabulary when presented with a close-set response format may prime phoneme retrieval and facilitate lexical access. This raises the issue of the age at which repetition should be introduced as a response mode. From the present findings we would recommend that, at least up to the age of 11 years, children be offered a close-set response format when assessing SRT for the first time. This observation may have a major impact on current practices in paediatric audiology, because repetition is often the preferred response mode for the measurement of SRT in children older than seven years of age.
Record ID 152
Link http://cjslpa.ca/files/1997_JSLPA_Vol_21/No_01_1-68/Lebel_Picard_JSLPA_1997.pdf
 
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